Genetic differences in taste preference, food tolerance, and phytochemical absorption and metabolism all potentially influence the effect of plant-based diets on cancer risk. Diet is a mixture of carcinogens, mutagens, and protective agents, many of which are metabolized by biotransformation enzymes. Genetic polymorphisms that alter protein expression or enzyme function can modify risk. Genotypes associated with more favorable handling of carcinogens may be associated with less favorable handling of phytochemicals. For example, glutathione S -transferases detoxify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metabolize isothiocyanates, which are chemopreventive compounds in cruciferous vegetables. Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that lack of GSTM1 enzyme is associated with more rapid excretion of the isothiocyanate sulforaphane; therefore, individuals who have this genetic variation may derive less benefit from consuming cruciferous vegetables. Flavonoids are conjugated with glucuronide and sulfate and are excreted in urine and bile. Polymorphisms in UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases may contribute to variability in phytochemical clearance and efficacy. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize phytochemicals may account in part for variation in disease risk and also have to be considered in the context of other aspects of human genetics, gut bacterial genetics, and environmental exposures.
Int J Cancer. Using bivariate LDSC and 57, 58 ], we estimated genetic correlations between our diet-composition phenotypes and 19 preselected relevant medical and lifestyle phenotypes for which well-powered GWAS results were available. Each of these seven SNPs is located in or near plant that have not been studied in depth diet date. The cancer preventative agent resveratrol is converted to the anticancer agent snps by the based P enzyme CYP1B1.
While I am not a full on vegan, I do eat a largely plant based diet and respect the ethical and environmental reasons underlying the Vegan lifestyle. One of the fascinating things about genetic research is the opportunity it affords to study the metabolic efficiencies of the human body. Sharing this information helps Vegans assess their diets in a sober way so they can clue in on the potential risks and guard against them. Vitamin A is a powerful antioxidant responsible for supporting healthy skin, vision, bone growth, and immune function, among other things. We can get Vitamin A from both plant and animal sources. Eggs, for example, are rich in a form of Vitamin A called retinol. Retinol, famous in many circles as the main ingredient in anti-aging skin treatments, is readily bioavailable, meaning it is consumed in a form the body can make use of right away. The other source of Vitamin A comes from fat soluble antioxidants known as carotenoids, which are plant based. We are easily able to absorb retinol derived from animal products, however, the bioavailability of plant based sources is more limited, meaning we lose Vitamin A in the process of converting beta-carotene to retinol. This is where the possibility for a vitamin A deficiency comes into play, especially for vegans. Some process beta-carotene into Vitamin A more efficiently than others. Note: to date, the studies showing a decreased ability to convert beta-carotene to Vitamin A for these SNPs have only been performed in women, the evidence is inconclusive as to men.
Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Stay up to date! Total dietary intake, and the satiety value of various foods, will profoundly modify the impact of these genes. Food fortification with folic acid: has the other shoe dropped? Modulation of human glutathione S-transferases by botanically defined vegetable diets. Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human origins. Using bivariate LDSC [ 57, 58 ], we estimated genetic correlations between our diet-composition phenotypes and 19 preselected relevant medical and lifestyle phenotypes for which well-powered GWAS results were available. Diseases arise because of genetic predispositions to one or more of these stressors. Nutr Rev —