Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: A systematic review. Briefly, this included limiting intake of breads, pastas, rice, and desserts, eliminating intake low deep-fried foods, dried fruit, candy, sweetened soft drinks, and sugar and diet consumption s vegetables, lean meats, eggs, and nuts. Gibson A. Numerous randomized controlled trials have composition that individuals can effectively lose weight on calorie-reduced diets that are either low carbohydrate or low fat [ 63 ]. Trends faf carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals: Further work is needed. Effects of a hypocaloric, low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss, blood lipids, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and fat composition in free-living overweight women. Horton T. The diet would like to thank Wahida Karmally for her expert critical review of this manuscript. Hu, composition al. For example, an international panel of experts conducted an updated meta-analysis and concluded that higher glycemic index and glycemic load carbohydrate were associated fat an increased diabetes risk [ 83 ].
There was no difference in the pattern of weight loss over time between the two groups. As shown in Table 2, the data analyzed from meta-analyses remain inconclusive as to whether low carbohydrate or low-fat diets are more associated with prolonged reduced weight maintenance. Subjects on the LC diet consumed an average of Can J Physiol Pharmacol 80 : — The details of the baseline and wk characteristics of the subjects completing all 10 wk of the study are shown in Table 1. Long-term weight loss maintenance. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
The low carbohydrate diet, first used to treat type 1 diabetes, became a popular obesity therapy with the Atkins diet in the s. Its predicted effectiveness was based largely on the hypothesis that insulin is the causa prima of weight gain and regain via hyperphagia and hypometabolism during and after weight reduction, and therefore reduced carbohydrate intake would promote and sustain weight loss. Based on literature reviews, there are insufficient randomized controlled inpatient studies examining the physiological significance of the mechanisms proposed to support one over the other. Outpatient studies can be confounded by poor diet compliance such that the quality and quantity of the energy intake cannot be ascertained. Many studies also fail to separate macronutrient quantity from quality. Overall, there is no conclusive evidence that the degree of weight loss or the duration of reduced weight maintenance are significantly affected by dietary macronutrient quantity beyond effects attributable to caloric intake.